Ask Westinghouse. They sold their EPR nuclear power technology to China when the French refused to license their own EPR nuclear technology to the Chinese. Westinghouse sold their technology on the basis of open innovation so that the Chinese have improved it, and it needed some improvement, which explained why Westinghouse sold it because it could not compete with the French EPR technology, and now the Chinese are building EPR nuclear power stations (first in the world) with this improved Westinghouse technology and the royalties are shared and the Chinese should sooner or later sell this technology outside China. You completely forget about open innovation. The French refused to sell the license for their TGV trains. So the Chinese devised their own and now have the biggest TGV train network and they are ready to export it. And they are still interested in the French EPR technology so they have been accepted in Great Britain as a main financial partner along with the master of the Hinckley project which is EDF, hence the owner of the French EPR technology. Think of Huawei and Google. Google is arguing that what they have done regarding Huawei is in itself dangerous for US national security and in six months Huawei will have their own technology to replace Android and they will develop it with the Russians — and you can be sure quite a few more who are at the top in that kind of technology, and their market will globally (at the level fo the whole world) enormous. I am back from Romania: the two main telecom companies there are Orange and Huawei. With Vodafone on the side. That means Huawei is already in Europe, in spite of the Poles.

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Dr Jacques COULARDEAU, PhD in Germanic Linguistics (University Lille III) and ESP Teaching (University Bordeaux II) has been teaching all types of ESP

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